Quick Guide To nano Text Editor On The Raspberry Pi

If I need to edit text files directly on my Raspberry Pi my text editor of choice is nano. There are other text editors available but I prefer nano’s relatively straightforward interface.

As a command line based utility it may feel strange for users who are more familiar with a graphical interface but it is easy to learn the basics. Syntax colouring is available which makes reading and reviewing scripts easy.

Launching nano

To start nano you can simply type nano at the command prompt. This will launch with a “new buffer”. In other words an empty text file that has no name.

In order to launch an existing text file you type nano followed by the file name :

nano berryclip_01.py

You will see something like this :

nano Text Editor Screenshot #1

nano Main Screen

If your file is not in the current directory you will need to specify the full path :

nano /home/pi/berrryclip/berryclip_01.py

If the file is a system file you may need to use elevated permissions :

sudo nano -w /etc/fstab

Note: Always use the -w switch when opening system files. It disables wrapping long lines and ensures the file isn’t modified in a way that may affect your system.

Editing Text

Once in nano you can start typing. Additional functions can be activated by using the CTRL or ESC keys. These short-cuts are listed at the end of this post. You can list these keys while in nano using CTRL+G (Press and hold the CTRL key then press the G key) :

nano Text Editor Screenshot #2

nano Help Pages (CTRL+G)

Return to the main screen using CTRL+X.

To get you started here is a brief summary of nano’s most useful features.

Saving and Quiting

To save a file you can use CTRL+O.

To quit nano you can use CTRL+X. You will be prompted to save your file if it has changed and you can answer this prompt with either a Y or a N. If you’ve changed your mind at this point you can return the main edit screen using CTRL+C.

Cutting and Pasting

To cut a line use CTRL+K. To copy a line use ALT+6.

To paste a line at the cursor position use CTRL+U.

To cut or copy multiple lines use CTRL+K or ALT+6 on each line and then paste them all using a single CTRL+U. They are pasted in the order that you cut/copied them. Using CTRL+U again will paste another set of text if required.

You can also mark a block of text before cutting. Position your cursor at the start of the text and press CTRL+6. Then position your cursor after the text and use CTRL+K or ALT+6 to cut or copy. CTRL+U to paste.

Searching and Replacing Text

To search for text use CTRL+W. Enter the text you need to find and press Enter. To repeat the search use ALT+W.
To perform a search and replace use ALT+R.

You can’t open files once nano is running. Although you can insert a file into the current buffer you can not open a file directly once you are in nano. You need to launch it from the command line. I find this quite strange. If you need to edit a number of files you need to quit and then load each one in turn from the command line.

Short-cut Summary

For some reason the official nano website keeps the┬ánano “Control” and “Meta” short-cuts a closely guarded secret so I have listed them here.

Control Meta Description
CTRL+G Display the help text
CTRL+X Close the current file buffer / Exit from nano
CTRL+O Write the current file to disk
CTRL+R Insert another file into the current one
CTRL+W Search for a string or a regular expression
ALT+W Repeat last search
CTRL+\\ ALT+R Replace a string or a regular expression
CTRL+K Cut the current line and store it in the cutbuffer
ALT+6 Copy the current line and store it in the cutbuffer
CTRL+U Paste from the cutbuffer into the current line
ALT+T Cut from the cursor position to the end of the file
ALT+A Mark text at the cursor position
CTRL+C Display the position of the cursor
CTRL+_ ALT+G Go to line and column number
CTRL+T Invoke the spell checker, if available
ALT+} Indent the current line
ALT+{ Unindent the current line
CTRL+Y Move to the previous screen
CTRL+V Move to the next screen
CTRL+F Move forward one character
CTRL+B Move back one character
CTRL+Space Move forward one word
ALT+Space Move back one word
CTRL+P Move to the previous line
CTRL+N Move to the next line
CTRL+A Move to the beginning of the current line
CTRL+E Move to the end of the current line
ALT+( or ALT+9 Move to the beginning of the current paragraph
ALT+) or ALT+0 Move to the end of the current paragraph
ALT+\\ or ALT+| Move to the first line of the file
ALT+/ or ALT+? Move to the last line of the file
ALT+] Move to the matching bracket
ALT+- or ALT+_ Scroll up one line without scrolling the cursor
ALT++ or ALT+= Scroll down one line without scrolling the cursor
ALT+< or ALT+, Switch to the previous file buffer
ALT+> or ALT+. Switch to the next file buffer
ALT+V Insert the next keystroke verbatim
CTRL+I Insert a tab at the cursor position
CTRL+M Insert a newline at the cursor position
CTRL+D Delete the character under the cursor
CTRL+H Delete the character to the left of the cursor
CTRL+J Justify the current paragraph
ALT+J Justify the entire file
ALT+D Count the number of words, lines, and characters
CTRL+L Refresh (redraw) the current screen
ALT+X Help mode enable/disable
ALT+C Constant cursor position display enable/disable
ALT+O Use of one more line for editing enable/disable
ALT+S Smooth scrolling enable/disable
ALT+P Whitespace display enable/disable
ALT+Y Color syntax highlighting enable/disable
ALT+H Smart home key enable/disable
ALT+I Auto indent enable/disable
ALT+K Cut to end enable/disable
ALT+L Long line wrapping enable/disable
ALT+Q Conversion of typed tabs to spaces enable/disable
ALT+B Backup files enable/disable
ALT+F Multiple file buffers enable/disable
ALT+M Mouse support enable/disable
ALT+N No conversion from DOS/Mac format enable/disable
ALT+Z Suspension enable/disable

Note : Some operations have multiple short-cuts.

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6 Responses to Quick Guide To nano Text Editor On The Raspberry Pi

  1. Derek Knight says:

    Thanks for this. I’ve always found nano a bit too hard to get into, having used emacs many years ago, and I’m now used to emacs commands. That said, I have to recommend zile (zile is like emacs). A full emacs implementation is a bit big for a Pi, but I find zile to be just as good. Not wanting to start a religious war…

  2. Bruno says:

    VI much better.

  3. Jeffrey Herr says:

    Seriously… This editor is a hog’s breath away from vi in terms of horrid usability curve. Alt-6, really????

  4. Raspberry Pi says:

    It is a very easy use text editor but it is easier just to use leafpad.

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