Miniature OLED display modules are a great way to add a small screen to your Raspberry Pi projects. They are available in various sizes but common sizes include 128×32 and 128×64 pixels. The cheaper ones have single colour pixels that are either white, yellow or blue. My device has white pixels and uses an I2C interface which only requires four wires to be connected to the Pi.
In this tutorial I’ll explain how I setup my 0.96″ OLED display module using the Pi’s I2C interface. Once setup it is easy to use Python to place text, draw shapes or even display simple images and animations.
The OLED Module
My OLED display module is a 0.96″ I2C IIC SPI Serial 128X64 OLED LCD LED Display Module.
It has four pins. Two are power (Vcc and Gnd) and two are for the I2C interface (SDA and SCL). The header may need to be soldered on before you can use it.
Update Operating System
As with all my projects I started off by creating an SD card with the latest Raspbian image. Then I made sure this was up-to-date by running the following commands :
sudo apt update sudo apt upgrade
This step may take a few minutes if there are lots of packages to update but it usually saves some frustration in the future.
Display Module Setup
My screen had four pins, two for power and two for the I2C interface.
I connected them directly to the Raspberry Pi’s GPIO header using the following scheme :
|OLED Pin||Pi GPIO Pin||Notes|
* You can connect the Vcc pin to either Pin 1 or 17 as they both provide 3.3V.
** You can connect the Gnd pin to either Pin 6, 9, 14 , 20, 25, 30, 34 or 39 as they all provide Ground.
Enable I2C Interface
The I2C interface is disabled by default so you need to enable it. You can do this within the raspi-config tool on the command line by running :
For additional details on this step please see my how to Enable the I2C Interface on the Raspberry Pi post.
The following libraries may already be installed but run these commands anyway to make sure :
sudo apt install -y python3-dev sudo apt install -y python-smbus i2c-tools sudo apt install -y python3-pil sudo apt install -y python3-pip sudo apt install -y python3-setuptools sudo apt install -y python3-rpi.gpio
If you are using Python 2 then use these commands instead :
sudo apt install -y python-dev sudo apt install -y python-smbus i2c-tools sudo apt install -y python-pil sudo apt install -y python-pip sudo apt install -y python-setuptools
I would recommend using Python 3 unless you have a really good reason for using Python 2.
Finding the OLED Display Module’s Address
With the I2C libraries installed I used the i2cdetect command to find the module on the I2C bus.
i2cdetect -y 1
and I got the following result :
This was good news as it showed the device had been detected with an address of “0x3c”. This is the default hex address for this type of device. I’ve got no idea why the device PCB suggests the address is “0x78” when it is clearly “0x3c”.
If you’ve got an original Model B Rev 1 Pi then type the following command instead :
i2cdetect -y 0
Install OLED Python Library
In order to display text, shapes and images you can use the Adafruit Python library. It should work with all SSD1306 based displays including their own 128×32 and 128×64 devices.
To install the library we will clone the Adafruit git repository. Ensure git is installed by running :
sudo apt install -y git
Then clone the repository using the following command :
git clone https://github.com/adafruit/Adafruit_Python_SSD1306.git
Once that completes navigate to the library’s directory :
and install the library for Python 2 :
sudo python setup.py install
and/or Python 3 :
sudo python3 setup.py install
This process will give you ability to include the library within your own Python scripts.
Example Python Scripts
Now we are ready to test some examples scripts. Navigate into the “examples” directory :
In there you should find a number of example scripts such as :
These examples can be run using :
or using Python 3 :
The examples should give you screens that appear in the examples below :
By modifying these scripts you can create your own graphics with shapes, images and text depending on your project. See if you can guess which ones were photos I downloaded to my Pi from Google Images!
Screen Size Adjustment
The Adafruit examples assume you have a 128×32 screen. They still run with a 128×64 pixel screen but it is better to change them before you move onto anything more complicated. To do this simply edit the scripts and disable the 128×32 config line by placing a # character at the front, and enable the 128×64 line by deleting the # character from the front. The section in the script should now look like this :
This step becomes essential if you want to start creating your own images to display on the screen.
Creating New Images
So you tried image.py example and wondered how you can create your own images? It’s fairly easy if you have an image editing application such as Photoshop or GIMP. I prefer using GIMP because it is free.
Ideally you want the images to be :
- 128×64 resolution
- 1-bit colour (i.e. black and white)
By default the image.py example will convert the image to 1-bit but it assumes the resolution is correct.
You’ll notice in the script an alternative line which resizes and converts an image so you can load images without worrying about their size and colour.
Load image and convert to 1-bit color :
image = Image.open('happycat_oled_64.ppm').convert('1')
Load an image, resize and convert to 1-bit :
image = Image.open('example.png').resize((disp.width, disp.height), Image.ANTIALIAS).convert('1')
Which technique you use is up to you. Resizing and converting takes extra processing time so in high performance applications you are better feeding the script images that have already been resized.
Resizing and Converting Images
If you want to load an image or photo then load it into your graphics application and perform the following steps :
- Load image
- Resize/scale to 128×64
- Convert to 1-bit colour (monchrome)
- Export as a “.pbm” or “.png” file
- Copy to your Pi in the same location as your Python script
- Update the Python script to use your new file
The Adafruit example image is a “ppm” file because it is colour although it is converted to monochrome at the point it is displayed on the screen. Adafruit use ppm as the library also supports their colour OLED modules. If you don’t have a colour screen you can switch to pbm or png.
I prefer creating “pbm” files as they are black and white and much smaller files. It also means your Python script doesn’t need to convert them. The library can handle both just make sure you use the correct filename and extension in your scripts.
Increasing I2C Bus Speed
If you are displaying multiple images per second it is worth increasing the bus speed of the interface as it can improve performance. Please see the Change Raspberry Pi I2C Bus Speed post .
If your screen isn’t working you should start at the beginning of this tutorial and work through it. Here are some thing to consider :
- Did you enable I2C and instal “python-smbus” and “i2c-tools”?
- Are the four module connections correct? Did you get SDA and SCL mixed up?
- Did “i2cdetect -y 1” give you the address of the display on the I2C bus?
- If your screen is using an address other than 0x3c did you adjust the Python script?
Buy a Miniature OLED Screen
These screens are available from a number of retailers so take a look and pick one that is convenient for your location :
Read the descriptions carefully as some OLED display modules use the SPI interface rather than I2C. Those are fine but you’ll need to follow a different tutorial to use that style.